How To Do Footnotes

Footnotes document the reference sources used in the writing of a research paper. They are found at the bottom of the page in which the referring text appears. Below are examples of footnotes using the MLA format for research papers. For more information please consult The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 808.027 Gibal, found in the non-fiction section of the library.

Book With One Author

1Cristina Alfar, Fantasies of Female Evil: The Dynamics of Gender and Power in Shakespearean Tragedy (Newark: U of Delaware P, 2003) 48-50.

Subsequent Notes Referring To The Same Source

2Alfar 54.

Book With Multiple Authors

1Don Carmichael, Tom Pocklington, and Greg Pyrcz, Democracy, Rights, and Well-Being in Canada, 2nd ed. (Toronto: Harcourt, 2000) 198-201.

Subsequent Notes

2Carmichael 217.

Edited Book

1David E. Smith, Peter Mackinnon, and John C. Courtney, eds., After Meech Lake: Lessons for the Future. (Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House, 1991) 88.

Subsequent Notes

2Smith 95.

Magazine Article

1Brenda Branswell and Peter Kopvillem, "Storm Warnings: Language Divides Even the Separatists," Maclean's 25 Nov. 1996: 78-79.

Subsequent Notes

2Branswell 78.

Newspaper Article

1Dave Stubbs, "Pro Wrestling-Style Brawl Breaks Out," Edmonton Journal 30 Aug 2004: D1.

Subsequent Notes

2Stubbs D1.

Reference Book

1"Feudalism," Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. 2003.

Subsequent Notes


Videocassette or DVD

1Canada Strikes Oil: Leduc, Alberta 1947, dir. David Newman, prod. Joe MacDonald, videocassette, National Film Board of Canada, 1991.
2The Mission, dir. Ronald Joffé, perf. Robert De Niro, Jeremy Irons, and Ray McAnally, 1986. DVD. Warner, 2003.

Subsequent Notes

3Canada Strikes Oil.

Sound Recording on CD

1Johann Sebastian Bach, Organ Works, Jacob Werner, perf., EMI, 2002.

Subsequent Notes

2Bach, Organ Works.

Article From An Online Journal

1Stan Hawkins, "'I'll Never be an Angel': Stories of Deception on Madonna's Music," Critical Musicology Journal May 1998, 16 August 2004 <>.

Subsequent Notes


Internet Site

1Victorian Women Writers Project, ed. Perry Willett, April 2003, Indiana U, 4 August 2004 <>.

Subsequent Notes

2Victorian Women.